Chamomile

Different variants of Chamomile exist. The most known are German- and Roman Chamomile.
Family: Sunflower family Compositae or Asteraceae

German Chamomile
Matricaria Chamomilla or Chamomilla recutita or Chamomilla vulgaris
Dutch: Echte Kamille German: Echte Kamillen French: Camomille Allemande / -Commune, Matricaire
Roman Chamomile
Chamaemelum nobile or Anthemis nobilis
Dutch: Roomse kamille German: Romische Kamillen French: Camomille Romaine




General Description

German Chamomile

In Hungary and eastern Europe German Chamomile is bred on a large scale. It grows over whole Europe in the wild. The plant is found in meadow and wheat fields, at roadsides, on sunny hills and on rubble place.
The plant flowers from May to August with at the tops flowers with yellow hearts and white petals that on the end of the flowering time bow down. The flowers have a honey like smell.
German Chamomile has smooth, green and thin stems and becomes 25 to 40 cm high. The leaves are gradually divided over the length of the stems. German Chamomile is a one year plants and has nerved seeds.







Chamomile 
leaf

Chamomile plant

Chamomile flower





Cultivate German Chamomile yourself.
The best place for German Chamomile is sunny.
Sow the seeds in the ground from March. Only push the seed in the soil, donít cover them.
The seeds germinate after 2 or 3 weeks. After germinating plant the plants 30 cm from each other.



Roman Chamomile

Roman Chamomile is a winter resistant always green more yearly plant. The plant has approximately the same properties as German Chamomile. Its taste is bitter, which make the tea of Roman Chamomile also bitter.
This Chamomile prefers light, sandy, and good drained soil but is rarely found in the wild.
It has light green leaves, which grow along the subdivided stem. The leaves smell like apple. The stem is weak, ridged, round and also light green. The plant has a root stem with which it spreads itself out.
On the top of every stem a very fragrant, small flower with a yellow heart and white leaves flowers from summer to fall.
Roman Chamomile can grow from 20 to 40 cm high. In the full sun, it becomes less high then in light shadow.


Chamomile seeds



The seeds are beige, narrow and small.


Cultivate Roman Chamomile yourself.
The best place for Roman Chamomile is in the full sun, with light and good drained soil.
To cultivate Roman Chamomile you can sow the seeds in spring, and put the after germinating at 45 cm from each other.
You can split the plant in the spring or in the fall. Take 8 mm cuttings of the side branches in the summer.


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History


The name Chamomile originates from a Greek word which means "ground apple" which refers to the apple smell of Chamomile. German Chamomile is used in Spain for the preparation of a sherry that is called "apple". This is also the Spanish name for Chamomile.
German Chamomile is of the genus Matricaria. The name Matricaria originates from the Latin (matrix means uterus) and comes from the former application for an irregular menstruation.
The name Roman Chamomile suggests a longer history, but this plant is cultivated and used just since one century. Roman Chamomile is of the genus Anthemis. This name originates from Greek and means noble flower.
According to the Lacnunga, an old Anglo-Saxon writing, Chamomile was one of the nine holy herbs that was given to the world by the god Wodan.
Chamomile is nearly everywhere cultivated for one of the most known herbal teas. Roman Chamomile is also used for ages because of its beneficial qualities.
German Chamomile is one of that most ancient herbal remedies. It was already known in the pre-Christian times and was described in Medieval plant book with the same applications as nowadays. In Parkinsonís herb book dating from 1656, bathing in Chamomile was recommended to reinforcement of healthy people and as a pain killer for ill people.
The relaxing aroma was also inhaled as a snuff or smoked to ease asthma and to cure insomnia. The plant is also considered as "plant healer", because it the health promoting properties to plants that grow in its vicinity.


Ramses II

The old Egyptians already used Chamomile. Nowadays in Egypt a lot of Chamomile is cultivate for own use and for the export.
Chamomile pollen was found in the stomach of the mummy of Ramses II.
The Egyptians honoured Chamomile to the sun and worshipped this herb above all others because of its therapeutic qualities.
Greek physicians gave Chamomile against fever and women illnesses.

Shakespeare refers in part I of Henry IV to the not-flowering variety of Chamomile that will grow better the more one walked on it. Moreover, in English there is a proverb about flexibility when there is misfortune: "As a Chamomile meadows", the more it gets stepped on, the too more it spreads itself.
Ones one sat on raised beds of this Chamomile species, because of the pleasant smell and to lighting of the pain of piles. In a popular garden book from 1638, William Lawson wrote about the big walk ways, broad and long (as the saint forests in Thessalié) raised with pebbles and sand, with seats and benches of Chamomile, all together this lightens the mind and heals the body.


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Applications


The therapeutic properties of the German Chamomile are quite close to those of the Roman Chamomile. Yet every variety has its typically own characteristics. The supporters of German Chamomile value mainly the honey like perfume and do not like the bitter taste of Roman Chamomile.


German Chamomile

As medicines, the flower heads and the ethereal oil is used.
During the flowering time, the flowers are picked and carefully dried.

Working and character.
Bactericide, inflammations brake, wound whole, anti-allergic, cramp defence, calming, comforting, softening, stomach means, decongestive and digestive tonic.

Specific therapeutic properties.
Skin problems, lit wounds, swear, eczema, dyspepsia (disturbed digestion), stomach and intestine sore, bladder inflammation, menstruation disturbances (irregular, staying away).

Use Chamomile also in or externally by: fire wound, freeze wounds, blisters, eczema, rheumatism, ear pain, acne / youth pustules, inflammations, wounds, insect bites, sores, little appetite, headache, skin problems, menstruation complaints, arthritis, sprains, muscle pain, gout, nerve pain, boils, allergies, migraine, nervousness, stress, transitions complaints, excitability, insomnia, fear, stress, tooth pain and digestions disturbances.

The Chamomile flower is therapeutic, healing, heating, calming and soothing, but never cheerful. Also is the good for children that pains have, anxious or irritable be.
Chamomile can be used about that as a tea against stomach-ache, in gargle drink and as a mouth rinse.
The flowers have a pleasant smell and exercise a cleaning and calming influence from on the stomach intestine system, in fact on all organs that with mucous membranes covered are.
Chamomile is one of the safest herbs and is good for restless children.
The flowers can be used against emotional tensions and by meditation.
Chamomile is used in inhalations for asthma.

External.
- Turned, bathe have gargle drink and a wound healing and anti-inflammation working.
- As an oil-extract, cream and compress by skin irritations and eczema. For that can be added also single drops essential oil at cream.
- As a vinegar by irritated genital organs or a sensitive skin.
- As an inhalation by hay fever.
- As a compress by tired eyes and allergies.
- In turned and compresses by cramps.

Internal.
- De tea of the flowers or ethereal oil works against inflammations and by mucus skin inflammations against cramps.
- De tea is safe for small children
- De tea helps by insomnia, nightmares, irritation and toothache.
- Brings the digestion to rest
- It helps by nervous indigestion, flatulence, colicís, gastritis and inflammations of the bowels. The tincture is by nervous indigestion the best.
- As faintly calming means. Good by tensions headache, psychosomatic habits, menstruation pain and other cramps.
- Good in the beginning stages of fever.
- A tea of Chamomile and rosemary is good against headache.

Cosmetic.
- Chamomile is a weak on that means. Externally Chamomile makes light brown hairs lighter and gives blond hairs a golden reflection, the tea can be used as a hair rinse.
- In cosmetics Chamomile is used for its anti-inflammatory, calming and soothing working. Azulene is applied about that in creams for a (over) sensitive skin.


Applications with ethereal oil.
The picking of the flowers is sore work intensive and is utmost layer the yield, declares this the value of the oil. Investigation has shown that Chamomile also as anti-poison by poisonings with passing bacteria as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be used. Hereby the poison is made harmless, this in contrast to the antibiotics by which the accessions of the bacteria are disturbed. Very small quantities of the Chamomile want to be already in state as anti-poison to work.
The wealth at alpha-bisabolol makes oil Chamomile to a particular active antiseptic. The oil promotes the cure of the skin, is soothing by joint problems, softening by eye problems and helps in the general against inflammations.
Only German Chamomile contain the beneficial blue oil (through chamazulene). The active matter from the ethereal oil forms fit self by the assimilation of the flowers (steam distillate) from a furrow stage, the matricine.
Often the working of an ethereal oil can be strengthen to combine it with other ethereal oils. Chamomile is good with Lavender to combine.

Here single applications of the ethereal oil of German Chamomile follow.

As a bath by various skin illnesses.
3 drops Chamomile, 3 drops Geranium and 4 drops Sandalwood mix with a little bit milk or a spoonful honey. This add want to bathe at a bath and 15-20 minutes.

By inflammations in the mouth.
Mix 4 drops Chamomile in a glass of boiled water and gargle with this 1 to 2 times a day.

With painful tooth growth with children.
Touch the painful places at with 1 drop Chamomile on a cotton wadding bar.

By light fire wound, eczema, youth pustules, wounds and sores.
2 to 3 drops Chamomile on a damp wad of absorbent cotton do and with this 1 to 2 times a day dab.

By lit, sensitive skin, acne.
4 drops milfoil, 7 drops Chamomile and 5 drops Rose oil, mix with 40 ml Jojoba oil and 10 ml wheat germ. With this mixture the skin 2 times rub per day.

Examples of available ethereal oil of Chamomile, you find here.



Roman Chamomile

The yellow heart contains the active compounds. Tuft of flowers as they open are. Keep through the drying of the flowers. Although the whole plant sore well smelling used became alone the flowers. These must on the first day of their bloom be picked, dried fast and after that in the shadow. If this adaptation carefully lifted will not the flowers darken, 'rust' and a part of their perfume and qualities lose.

Working and character.
Calming, cramp decreasing (central nervous system), inflammations defence, against parasites.

Specific therapeutic working.
Asthma (of nervous origin), surgical interventions, digestive, whooping cough, stomach cramps, nervous shock, soothing.

Use Roman Chamomile also by: allergies, eczema, psoriasis, itch, acne / youth pustules, herpes, wounds, sores, mucus formation in the nose, stiff muscles and joints, little appetite, headache, migraine, skin rash, menstruation complaints, depressions, insomnia, hysteria, nervousness, boils, insect bites, transitions complaints, spit, eye problems, menstruation habits, excitability, stress and digestions disturbances. Roman Chamomile works fever defence and lit by stomach-ache, stiff muscles and joints.

In beauties drawing rooms, Chamomile tea is often served to relax the face muscles.
It has o. a. calming influence on eyes and skin, and it is digestion improving.
The tea of the flowers is good as a complete restorative and comforting means (good for restless children and against nightmares). Before an extract make to use through 4 or 5 flowers per head of 25 cl.
A compress want to wound and to cure eczema.
Use in bath round through sun or wind burnt skin to soften.
The Chamomile has a complex working: at the same time appetite enhancing, strengthening and digestion improving. Unsweetened extracts are advised for the meal as natural aperitif. After the meal especially the digestion is valued-promoting quality.
It is also active against headache and nerve pain.
For external use, a decoction has of 5 or 6 flowers a soothing working on an irritated skin and on the eyelids.
The workings of Roman Chamomile is more generous than that of the German Chamomile and is about that in low quantities particularly arranged for children, especially as these extract or fear have.

Housekeeping.
- Late the plant do not grow area by a that it so good does these again what on to pep or spread 'smother' to promote an extract over seedlings to prevent and on compost the digestion.
- Boil the flower of A. tinctoria for a strong yellow-brown paint matter.

Cosmetic.
- Use an extract of the flower (C. nobile, M. recutita) as a face steam bath and as a hand week means round the skin softer and whiter to make.
- Make an eye bath to decrease or tea-bag compress inflammations and to remove tiredness circles.
- An extract Join closed at a refreshing bath.
- Boil the flowers 20 minutes and use this regular as a rinse blond hair lighter to colour and to hold in condition.

Aromatic.
- Dried leaves keep their apple smell and are used in melanges.
- Use the flower and leaf in melanges and in herb cushion.


Applications with ethereal oil.
The ethereal oil is obtained by water vapour distillation by the flowering tops. The oil also can be distilled from dried flowers, this oil has then a pale blue colour that slowly discolours to green yellow.
Often the working of an ethereal oil can be strengthen to combine it with other ethereal oils. Roman Chamomile is good to combine with Rose, Orange and Geranium.

Here some applications of the ethereal oil of Roman Chamomile follow.

By itchy skin rash by allergic problems.
Mix 2 drops Roman Chamomile and 4 drops Helicryse with a tablespoon Calendula macerate and rub that the rash with.

By light fire wound, eczema, youth pustules, psoriasis, herpes, itch, wounds and sores.
2 to 3 drops Roman Chamomile on a damp wad of absorbent cotton do and with this superior grind per day the wounds dab.

Compress by stomach intestine cramps, harden muscles and spit.
10 drops Roman Chamomile join am called closed water at 2 litters, christen in this a small towel, wring the lightly from and lay it so hotly possible on the painful spot. The heat working can strengthen be to lay through a warm water bag on the compress. Possibly at with 2 drops Lavender or 2 drops Rosemary or 2 drops Sandalwood to fill.

As a mucus dissolver by allergic problems, especially by mucus formation in the nose and sneeze.
Mix 2 drops Roman Chamomile and 4 drops Helicryse in a scale am called water and steam 1 to 3 turn per day.

By eczema or psoriasis.
2 to 3 drops Roman Chamomile on a damp wad of absorbent cotton do and with this superior grind per day dab. A compress with 10 drops in 1 litter or make boiled, cooled down water. Let 10-15 minutes work in.

Evaporate.
3 drops Marjoram, 3 drops Lavender and 3 drops Roman Chamomile in the aroma lamp works positive by agiteredness.

Examples of available ethereal oil of Chamomile, you find here.



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Chemical properties

German Chamomile

In the plant present compounds.
Ethereal oil (0,5-1.5 chamazulene), Choline, bitters matter (among which azulene), Flavonoids (among which: apigenine, luteoline, patuletine and quercitine) and Malic acid.

Active compounds in the Ethereal oil.
Sesquiterpenoids:
bisabolene, chamazulene 5%, dihydrochamazulene I and II and trans-beta- farnesene

Sesquiterpenols:
a-bisabolol 8%, farnesol, spatulenol

Sesquiterpenic acids:
a-bisabolol-oxide 23%, 10% b-bisabolol-oxide, c-bisabolol-oxide, epoxy-bisabolol and sesquiterpenic lactones

Coumarines and methoxycoumarines:
herniarine and omnibelliferon

Ethers:
a-ether bicyclic polyénique(1-10%)


Roman Chamomile

Active components in the Ethereal oil.
Terpenic alcohols:
a-pinene 1.6%, beta-pinene 0.2%, camphene 0.4%, limonene 0.2%, isobutyl- butyrate 3.7%, isobutyl-2-methylbutyrate 0.7%, isoamyl-butyrate 2.6%, 2-methylbutyl-2 -methylbutyrate 2.7%, hexyl-butyrate 3.9%, propyl-angelate 1.1%, isobutyl-angelate 36%, 2-methyl-2-propenylangelate 7.4%, butyl-angelate 0,9% and isoamyl-angelate 17.9%


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Precautions

Chamomile is safe, but some people get sick of large doses and strong teas.
Avoided large doses during the pregnancy.
Some people react allergic by contact with Chamomile.
The most ethereal oils cannot be taken in without risk.
Use ethereal oil only internal if you have sufficient knowledge or consult a (homeopathic) physician. In general however is the working by external use more strong than by internal use.


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Culinary

Calming tea.
Mix equal quantities of Chamomile flower, linden blossom and Melissa or lemon verbena.
Make of this a tea. This is a tasty tea, especially for people who find Chamomile tasteless. Drink to wish when stressed.


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Other variants





Chamaemelum anthemis 'Treneague'
This is a not flowering clone, it has leaves that smell like apple and are used on lawns because of its swell. The heights is approximately 5 cm.

Chamaemelum anthemis treneague




Chamaemelum nobile sail. Flore 
-pleno




Chamaemelum nobile sail. Flore-pleno
This is dubbed flowering Chamomile the plant smells of apple.






Anthemis tinctoria
The Dutch name for this plant is yellow Chamomile. It has golden flowers and gives a yellow brown paint matter. The plant flowers the whole summer. Height 75 cm.

Anthemis tinctoria

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Remaining images

Here a number of impressions / photographs of Chamomile are shown.

German Chamomile

German Chamomile flowers Matricaria Chamomilla plant



Roman Chamomile

Roman Chamomile flowers Chamaemelum 
Nobile

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[1]. Bremness, Lesley;- The Complete Book of Herbs: A Practical Guide to Growing and Using Herbs - Fifth edition; Studio (1994). ISBN 0140238026
[2]. Shaw, Non; - Herbalism: An Illustrated Guide - First edition; Element Books Ltd. (2000). ISBN 1862042241
[3]. Rüdt, U.; - Therapeutic and poisonous plants - First edition; Zutphen: INC W. J. Thieme & Cie (1973). ISBN 90-03 94630 2




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